In 1784, the character of the new American nation was under attack. French natural historian Georges-Louis Leclerc, Count Buffon, had embraced the concept of degeneration and boosted it in his work on Histoire Naturelle, a 44-volume exploration of the natural world.
The concept behind degeneration basically held that all natural elements began in one location (presumably Europe), and that's where they could be seen in their purest form. As people, plants and animals spread out to other parts of the world, they degenerated into inferior versions of their species. It is one of many examples of scientific racism throughout history.
European men and animals were superior to their counterparts in other parts of the world because as those other civilizations developed they moved further away from their European origins, living conditions and traditions - and as they did the people and animals degenerated.
Leclerc's theory played well with the European aristocracy since it described Americans, with democratic ideals, as inferior beings. And he didn't stop there. He castigated American Indians as physically weak people with small genitals and a limited drive to procreate. Thomas Jefferson, American minister to France and himself an avid student of natural history, confronted Buffon over his theories. Indians, Jefferson noted, were as fertile as any people when afforded healthy surroundings. And the lack of facial hair on many Indians, which Buffon declared a sign of inferiority, was actually a product of Indian grooming traditions, which held that hair was unmanly. They plucked it. Buffon agreed to correct his research in future editions.
Next Jefferson tried to challenge Buffon on his assertions that European deer were much larger than their American counterparts. He told Buffon of deer and elk with large antlers, to say nothing of the moose, which he claimed were so tall in America a European reindeer could walk underneath them without touching the moose's stomach.
To prove his point, Jefferson shipped from his home an enormous set of deer antlers. And Buffom said he would stand corrected if Jefferson could prove his point about the moose.
To defend the moose's honor, Jefferson wrote a letter to New Hampshire Governor John Sullivan, asking him to procure the bones and hide of a moose and ship them to France, as he knew moose were common in Northern New England. In 1786 he continued pressing Sullivan on the matter. In a letter he wrote:
"The readiness with which you undertook to endeavor to get for me the skin, the skeleton, and the horns of the Moose, the Caribou, . . . and the Elk, emboldens me to renew my application to you for those objects, which would be an acquisition here, more precious than you can imagine.
"Whatever expense you incur in procuring or sending these things, I will immediately repay either here or in Boston as you please."
After years of badgering, Sullivan finally rounded up a team of hunters who went moose chasing. They got their specimen, most likely in the town of Brookfield, Vt. The dead moose then began a long journey to France, via Durham and Portsmouth, N.H. where it was packed, along with an assortment of other animal specimens, and shipped to France.
If Sullivan was dismayed by the request, he didn't show it, but he did note the trouble required in obtaining the moose. When submitting his bill to Jefferson, he said, "from motives of friendship for you I only Charge for the expenses I have paid in Cash without any thing for my own Trouble which has been very considerable."
All in, the cost of shipping the moose was over 46 pounds. The bill included:
- Paid to Capt. Robert Colburn for the Skeleton of a moose and Transporting to Durham
- moose horns and expence of procuring them
- a pair of Elks horns & expence of procuring
- a pair of Deers horns & expence of procuring
- a pair of Caribous Horns & expense of procuring
- expense of cleansing the Skeleton from flesh and salting and tending the same to prevent putrefaction
- a Tanner for fleshing the Skins
- Expense of Dressing the Skins to preserve it with the hair on, free from worms & with expense of Alum brick Dust & Tobacco
- Expense of a Box and putting up the skeleton
- expense of sending the Box to Portsmouth
- horns of the Spike horned Buck
- Expense of 3 times sending to Effingham Connecticut River and the province of Main, to procure the skeleton
- Truckage and Storage paid at Durham and Portsmouth
Though the moose skin and skeleton arrived somewhat worse for wear, they did persuade Buffom he was incorrect in his assessment of the size of American moose, and he promised to correct the error in a future edition of his work. He died, however, before he could publish.
Thanks to Jefferson, Buffon and the Moose by Keith Stewart Thomson in American Scientist; Antlers for Jefferson, New England Quarterly.