The Penobscot Expedition, America’s Forgotten Military Disaster

On Sept. 6, 1779, Lt. Col. Paul Revere was relieved of his command of the fort at Castle Island in Boston and placed under house arrest. He was charged with 'unsoldierlike behavior ... which tends to cowardice' during the Penobscot Expedition.

Penobscot Expedition by John Thomas Serres

Penobscot Expedition by John Thomas Serres

The Penobscot Expedition during the American Revolution was the worst naval disaster in American history until Pearl Harbor. That a huge force of men, ships and guns failed to take a small British fort in Maine has been largely forgotten.

Penobscot Expedition

In 1779, British warships and troop transports sailed into Bagaduce (now Castine, Maine), on the Penobscot Bay. Seven hundred British troops built a fort to defend Canada, deny timber to the rebels and interrupt their privateering. Ultimately they intended to settle the outpost as a haven for Loyalists. It was to be called New Ireland.

Maine was then part of Massachusetts, which soon got word of the British presence on its soil. Civilian officeholders of the commonwealth decided to force them out. They called up the militia and commandeered ships from the Massachusetts Navy, the Continental Navy and the fleet of privateers.

The Penobscot Expedition included 40 vessels, nearly 2,000 seamen and marines, 100 artillerymen, 870 militia and 350 guns.

The operation was planned by civilians with little military input and carried out by badly trained part-time soldiers. Commodore Dudley Saltonstall and Brigadier General Solomon Lovell were put in joint command of the expedition; the former was timid and indecisive, the latter had little field experience.

Paul Revere was in charge of the artillery train. He didn't have much military training, but he had repaired the guns damaged when the British evacuated Boston.

The expedition's shortcomings were overlooked. When the massive flotilla left Boston Harbor, everyone expected the garrison to be taken – even the British.


The Penobscot Expedition sailed into the harbor outside of Bagaduce on July 25, 1779. They found an earthworks fort protected by three sloops in the harbor. Though the Americans seemed to have a decisive advantage, the British had more experience, a favorable geographic position and better coordination between land and sea forces.

penobscot expedition map

The Americans took a small battery on an island off the coast, then a force of 600 militiamen advanced along a steep bluff. Suddenly they found themselves within a few hundred yards of Fort George.

Revere wanted to storm the fort, but Lovell ordered a siege. Saltonstall refused to clear the harbor of the three British ships. For two weeks the militamen sat outside the fort. Lovell wouldn’t attack the fort until Saltonstall attacked the fleet; Saltonstall wouldn’t attack the fleet until Lovell attacked the fort.

Meanwhile, the British built up the earthen walls of the fort and managed to request reinforcements.

Terrible Day

On Aug. 13, a British relief fleet arrived and Saltonstall ordered a retreat – up the Penobscot River.

"...[A]n attempt to give a description of this terrible Day is out of my Power," Lovell later wrote.

Would phone spying have identified Paul Revere?

Paul Revere

During the panic that followed, Adjutant Gen. Peleg Wadsworth ordered Revere to deliver his ordnance brig to help evacuate a schooner drifting toward the British fleet. Revere initially refused, then followed Wadsworth’s orders.

As the British bore down, the Americans burned and sank their ships and disappeared into the woods, heading for home. Revere made his way back to Massachusetts. In the end, all the American ships were destroyed except one, which was captured by the British. The Americans lost 470 men; the British only 13.

Commenting on the later exploits of John Paul Jones and the Ranger, Abigail Adams wrote on Dec. 13, 1779, “Unhappy for us that we had not such a commander at the Penobscot expedition.”

Court Martial

Recrimination followed the disaster. Dudley Saltonstall was court martialed and dismissed from the Continental Navy. He became a privateer.

Paul Revere was investigated by a Massachusetts committee of inquiry. Wadsworth charged him with disobeying his orders, and lengthy depositions showed Revere’s arrogance had earned him enemies.

Though the committee didn’t rule one way or the other on his actions, Revere’s reputation was sullied. He tried to clear his name and demanded a full court martial. More than two years later, he was exonerated by a military panel.





  1. John Cahill

    February 23, 2017 at 1:03 pm

    The story is well-known to readers of Bernard Cornwell’s The Fort.

  2. Pingback: Six Oldest Libraries in New England - New England Historical Society

  3. Pingback: The Greatest Submarine Rescue Ever: Saving the Squalus - New England Historical Society

  4. Pingback: Samuel Williams Watches an Eclipse From Behind British Lines in 1780 - New England Historical Society

  5. Pingback: The Revolutionary War Veterans Christmas Dinner - New England Historical Society

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

To Top