People still can’t seem to get enough of the Salem witch trials, which remain a mainstay of popular culture 325 years after they started.
Writers and artists used the Salem witch trials to show why government persecutes the innocent, how the ignorant masses are manipulated or why people get caught up in hysteria. Or sometimes they just used the trials to entertain.
For more than a century, tourists to Salem, The Witch City, have been buying witch souvenirs and visiting witch houses.
Why the continued fascination with the Salem witch trials? Because a lot of people have ancestors involved in the hysteria. In addition to the 20 people tried and executed, magistrates indicted 200 people for witchcraft.
For example, Mary Parker, hanged as a witch in Salem, has two descendants elected president of the United States: George H.W. and George W. Bush.
Salem Witch Trials in Literature
Almost as soon as the Salem witch hysteria subsided, the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay Colony tried to justify killing 20 people. The Rev. Cotton Mather explained the devil used witchcraft to persecute the Puritan settlers. Five years after the trials, Judge Samuel Sewall wrote a confession apologizing for his role in them.
In the two centuries since, hundreds if not thousands of plays, long poems and novels have grappled with the Salem witch trials.
Today, Amazon.com lists more than 600 available titles about them. They range from the erotic adventures of the Salem Snack Witch Trials to the scholarly Salem Possessed. The Social Origin of Witchcraft to the historical romance Salem's Daughter, featuring the ravishingly beautiful Bristol Adams.
The trials turned up in two Harry Potter novels. And they appear on recordings, in television programs (yes, Bewitched!), in comic books, in video games and in cartoons (Scooby-Doo! and the Witch's Ghost).
Even Spider-Man tangled with the witch trials after he traveled to Salem to battle his nemesis Dr. Doom, who had help from Cotton Mather.
In 1835, Nathaniel Hawthorne published a short story, Young Goodman Brown, set during the witch trials. Hawthorne’s great-great-grandfather, John Hathorne, was a judge in the trials. Hawthorne added the 'w' to distance himself from his ancestor.
In 2008, the black metal band Ceremonial Castings recorded an album called Salem 1692. Two members of the band are also direct descendants of Hathorne. And Neil Peterson, bass guitarist for the band Curious Yello, is a descendent of Alice Parker, hanged as a witch.
It's probably coincidental that Lucille Ball appeared as a witch in her son's school pageant on the I Love Lucy Show. Her ancestor William Towne had three daughters accused of witchcraft during the Salem witch trials. Authorities convicted another of Ball's ancestors, Mary Bradbury, for assuming the form of a blue boar. The hysteria died down before the authorities hanged Mary.
Also descended from Mary Bradbury: science fiction writer Ray Bradbury. Novelist Margaret Atwood concluded that was no accident. Bradbury's best work, 'sinks a taproot right down into the deep, dark, Gothic core of America,' wrote Atwood shortly after he died in 2012.
A 1993 Disney film, Hocus Pocus, starred Sarah Jessica Parker as a witch hanged in Salem but returned in the 20th century. Parker later found out her 10th great-grandmother, Esther Elwell, was arrested for witchcraft but never tried.
Still Deadly After All These Years
Stories about the Salem witch trials spawn spin-offs on top of spin-offs.
In the 1930s, horror writer H.P. Lovecraft set many of his stories in Arkham, Mass., a fictional town founded by Salem witch trial refugees. His story The Dreams in the Witch House later became a play, two novels by Graham Masterton, a cable television show and a British horror film, Curse of the Crimson Altar.
In his play The Crucible, Miller used the Salem witch trials as an allegory for the persecution of alleged Communists by the House Un-American Affairs Committee. Miller himself was cited in contempt of Congress for refusing to name people he thought belonged to the Communist Party.
The Crucible was made into an opera and two films, one adapted by French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre.
Art and Tchotchkes
During the colonial revival, photographs of the houses of the trials' main players became popular reproductions. Rebecca Nurse, a respected grandmother hanged as a witch, lived in the house pictured below. It illustrated the 1892 book, Witchcraft Illustrated by Henrietta D. Kimball.
Today, the Rebecca Nurse Homestead is one of Salem's many historic attractions that people can visit in the summer.
Also throughout the 19th century, many artists illustrated the witch trials in paintings and in books.
"Witchcraft at Salem Village," pictured at the top of the story, is one of the most famous depictions of the Salem witch trials.
Today, the Witch City attracts wiccan gatherings, Halloween celebrants and tourists to its creepy and comical witch museums. History lovers can also see the long-running playlet, Cry Innocent. Or they can take historic walking tours describing what happened and where.
In 1890, a Salem jeweler named Daniel Low began selling souvenir sterling "Witch" spoons to tourists.
Tourists can still buy witch spoons and other affordable mementos of the witch hysteria. They have a broad selection of shot glasses, refrigerator magnets, floating witch pens, Christmas tree ornaments, T-shirts, bumper stickers, tote bags and hoodies.
Photos: Salem Witch House By SalemPuritan - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=37921126; Rebecca Nurse house CC BY-SA 3.0, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=17061487
This story was updated in 2017.