Irregulars

A Spy for a Spy: John Andre Hanged

On Oct. 2, 1780, British intelligence officer John Andre met his awful fate with courage much as his American counterpart Nathan Hale met his four years earlier. For Andre was hanged as a spy, though he probably wouldn’t have been had Hale been spared.

Andre conspired with Continental Army Brigadier General Benedict Arnold to surrender the fort at West Point to the British. Arnold had just been appointed commandant at the fort, but greed and resentment compelled him to turn traitor. The British offered to pay him 20,000 pounds for the deed, more than $1 million today.

American militiamen captured Andre on his way to New York City. He was 30 years old, a wealthy, London-born Huguenot who had served 10 years in the 7th Royal Fusiliers. He’d been captured once before, at Fort Saint-Jean in Quebec and held in Lancaster, Pa. Andre gave his word that he wouldn’t try to escape and was allowed to roam the town freely. He was exchanged for an American prisoner in 1776.

John Andre Captured in Tarrytown (Currier & Ives, Library of Congress)

John Andre Captured in Tarrytown (Currier & Ives, Library of Congress)

Andre joined the British occupations of New York and Philadelphia, where he lived in Benjamin Franklin’s house. He was a favorite among colonial society as he was a charming conversationalist, a good singer and a talented artist. In Philadelphia he had become friendly – and possibly more than friendly – with Peggy Shippen, a Loyalist. She later married Benedict Arnold and acted as their go-between.

In late September 1780, Andre left his sloop-of-war anchored in the Hudson River and met Arnold on land. The next day, American troops fired on the ship, forcing it to move downriver. Andre was stranded.

Arnold gave him civilian clothes, a fake passport and six papers showing the British how to take West Point. He was captured by American militiamen in Tarrytown, N.Y. General George Washington named a board of officers to hear his case. He was found guilty of spying and sentenced to die.

In the case of Hale, the Colonists had taken umbrage to his being hanged as a spy. They argued that he was acting in a military capacity and deserved better treatment. The customs of the time were quite clear, however, and as he was out of uniform when captured, he was given a spy’s sendoff. As a result, any consideration that might have been given to Andre was out of the question.

Dr. James Thacher, a Continental Army surgeon, gave an eyewitness account of Andre’s last day in his memoir, The American revolution, from the commencement to the disbanding of the American army : given in the form of a daily journal, with the exact dates of all the important events; also a biographical sketch of all the most prominent generals

“So soon, however, as he perceived that things were in readiness, he stepped quickly into the wagon, and at this moment he appeared to shrink, but instantly elevating his head with firmness he said, "It will be but a momentary pang," and taking from his pocket two white handkerchiefs, the provost-marshal, with one, loosely pinioned his arms, and with the other, the victim, after taking off his hat and stock, bandaged his own eyes with perfect firmness, which melted the hearts and moistened the cheeks, not only of his servant, but of the throng of spectators. The rope being appended to the gallows, he slipped the noose over his head and adjusted it to his neck, without the assistance of the awkward executioner. Colonel Scammel now informed him that he had an opportunity to speak, if he desired it; he raised the handkerchief from his eyes, and said, "I pray you to bear me witness that I meet my fate like a brave man." The wagon being now removed from under him, he was suspended, and instantly expired; it proved indeed "but a momentary pang." He was dressed in his royal regimentals and boots, and his remains, in the same dress, were placed in an ordinary coffin, and interred at the foot of the gallows; and the spot was consecrated by the tears of thousands ...”

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