It was a time when they might find themselves in sundown towns, which made it illegal for minorities to spend the night within municipal limits – even in New England.
James Loewen, a historian who researches sundown towns, found evidence of a sign in Connecticut that said, "Whites Only Within City Limits After Dark."
Always alert to potential embarrassment or danger, African-Americans carried blankets, packed lunch and even toted cans of gasoline when they took to the road.
And they carried the Green Book.
The Green Book
Victor H. Green was a letter carrier in New York City. Among his deliveries were Jewish guides that told readers what restaurants and hotels were restricted. He asked his colleagues in the postal service to help him by asking around on their routes about good places to stay. He published the first Green Book in 1936, focusing on metropolitan New York City.
The 10-page book, which sold for 25 cents, included listings for restaurants, service stations, hotels, tourist homes, taverns, liquor stores, beauty parlors, nightclubs, drugstores and tailors.
It included a quotation from Mark Twain on its cover:
Travel is fatal to prejudice.
The Green Book expanded over the years to include every U.S. state and advertisements for lodgings, for Ford automobiles and for service stations. During World War II he suspended publication, but by 1949 it ran to more than 80 pages.
Esso was an important sponsor because of the work of James ‘Billboard’ Jackson, the company’s first black marketing specialist. Esso promoted the Green Book as enabling Esso's black customers to ‘go further with less anxiety.’ African-American drivers could buy the Green Book and get maps at Esso stations. Shell, on the other hand, had a reputation for turning away black customers.
Green’s timing was good. African-Americans were buying cars as soon as they could afford them to avoid the indignities of traveling on trains or buses. The interstate highway system was still in the future, so motorists had to drive through unfamiliar towns where they might not be welcome.
Journalist George Schuyler, a Rhode Island native, explained in 1930,
…all Negroes who can do so purchase an automobile as soon as possible in order to be free of discomfort, discrimination, segregation and insult.
Green looked forward to the day the Green Book wouldn't be necessary. In the 1949 edition he wrote,
There will be a day sometime in the near future when this guide will not have to be published. That is when we as a race will have equal opportunities and privileges in the United States. It will be a great day for us to suspend this publication for then we can go wherever we please, and without embarrassment. But until that time comes we shall continue to publish this information for your convenience each year.
The year the Civil Rights Act passed, in 1964, was the Green Book’s last. By then Civil Rights activists demanded equal access and discouraged voluntary segregation.
Jim Crow Bible
The Green Book was the Bible of black travel during Jim Crow. Today it is a guide to a past that hasn’t completely vanished.
In the 1949 Green Book, for example, listings for the African-American neighborhood in Boston’s South End include eight hotels and guest houses, nine restaurants, a couple of barbers, the Savoy Nightclub (where Malcolm X once shined shoes) and a half-dozen tailors.
Charlie’s, one of the restaurants listed on Columbus Avenue, was where Sammy Davis. Jr., used to tap dance for change as a young boy. Charlie’s, now known as Charlie’s Sandwich Shoppe, closed in 2014 but reopened under new ownership.
As New Haven revives the jazz that once made it a mecca for musicians, the 1949 Green Book limns the Dixwell neighborhood where Duke Ellington and Billie Holiday performed. There’s the Phillis Wheatley Hotel, the Dr. M.F. Allen and Mrs. C. Raone tourist homes, the Monterey Cafe and the Belmont Restaurant, the Elks Nightclub and Lillian's Paradise. The Monterey Café, where owner Rufus Greenlee danced with Josephine Baker, lasted long enough to foster New Haven’s Hip Hop scene in the late ‘70s and early ‘80s.
Today, the Town of Oak Bluffs on Martha’s Vineyard is a resort community visited by such prominent African-Americans as Spike Lee, Charlayne Hunter-Gault and Dr. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. In 1956, it provided even more of a reprieve for upper-middle-class African-Americans like Martin Luther King, Jr., who wrote speeches on the porch of an Oak Bluffs cottage, and Dorothy West, who wrote a novel about the town’s social life. That year the Green Book listed eight places where cottages could be rented in Oak Bluffs. (You can watch an online documentary about Oak Bluffs for free here.)
The Orchard House
The Green Book's lone resort and campground have disappeared. There’s no trace of the Mrs. E. Whittle Tourist Home at 785 Bank St., New London, Conn. All that’s left of Limberlock Lodge in Manchester, Vt., is a postcard selling on eBay. Gone is the Mace Guest House, which advertised ‘Fishing and Bathing’ in the Green Book for Christian vacationers. (A room or cottage with meals cost $5.00 in 1956.)
A vestige of the Green Book past does remain in in the Westerly, R.I.-Pawcutuck, Conn., area. A building occupied by plastics manufacturer Hi-Tech Profiles stands on the land where the legendary Orchard House once stood.
Orchard House, a 15-room guest house that catered to an elite African-American clientele, was owned by two sisters from Brooklyn, one divorced, one widowed. In 1956, the Green Book listed it in Westerly as part of its vacation guide.
Minnie Carter got the idea for the guest house while working as a waitress at the Urban League in Brooklyn. Professionals complained to her they had no decent place to vacation. In 1938, she and her sister, Gertrude Owens, a cook, bought a restaurant called the Spaghetti House in Westerly and turned it into a five-room hotel. During the summer they ran the Orchard House, and during other times of the year they worked in nearby mills to support their business.
Carter drove guests herself to nearby Pleasant View Beach (now Misquamicut State Beach), where at first they met resistance but were eventually tolerated, if not welcomed.
By 1946, the Orchard House was so successful the sisters went looking for a bigger place. With financing help from the owner, they bought the White House Tea Room, a 15-room guest house with a dining room in a separate building. Guests could enjoy tennis, shuffleboard, horseshoes and, especially, Owens’ Sunday dinner: a half-lobster, fried chicken and dessert.
Men were required to wear jackets and ties to dinner and no liquor was sold. Carter's daughter, Doris Simmons, waitressed at the Orchard House. "People came all the way from Washington, D.C.," she said. "We had civil servants, doctors, lawyers and they all had money, and the merchants in Westerly looked forward to our opening every season."
The Orchard House closed when Owens was diagnosed with terminal cancer in 1971, seven years after the Green Book ceased publication. Carter sold the land to a developer in 1972.
In 2000, Hi-Tech Pofiles paid tribute to Orchard House, since demolished, with a plaque and a painting in its lobby. The bronze plaque announces the Orchard House stood on the site 'as a summer guest house from 1946 to 1972, offering superior accommodations to distinguished persons of color.’
Art: screen grab advertisement, feature image with Green Book superimposed on Oak Bluffs image.