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William Smith Shaw, John Adams Bibliomaniac Nephew Who Founded the Boston Athenaeum

The stately Boston Athenaeum at 10-1/2 Beacon St. owes its storied existence to William Smith Shaw, the obsessive, sickly, curmudgeonly, hard-drinking nephew of John Adams.

Today the Athenaeum oozes elegance with its scarlet leather-bound doors, gilt-edged books and marble busts. But in 1807, it was little more than the obsession of the odd bibliomaniac who served as its first librarian.

William Smith Shaw, wrote a contemporary, ‘fastens on everything new, rare, and antique, with an earnestness which baffles all denial.’

Shaw's compulsive hoarding of books was said to be a symptomatic disease of the upper class during the early, anxious years of the new American republic.

William Smith Shaw

William Smith Shaw was born in the chaos of the American Revolution on Aug. 12, 1778, in Haverhill, Mass. His father was village minister John Shaw; his mother, Elizabeth Smith, was Abigail Adams’ sister. He was sickly as a child, and at the age of eight he ran into a low-hanging clothesline, which injured his windpipe and wrenched his spine. At 12 he caught his ankle in a fencepost hole, which left him with a limp throughout his life.

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Portrait of William Smith Shaw by Gilbert Stuart.

His portrait by Gilbert Stuart shows a hunched, pasty-faced gentleman with a book in front of him.

His father died while he was at Harvard, leaving his family impoverished and forcing him to work for his tuition.

After he graduated in 1798, he became personal secretary to his uncle, President John Adams. When George Washington died, it was William Smith Shaw who traveled to Mount Vernon to give Congress’s condolences to Martha Washington.

He keenly felt the political uncertainty of the age. After his uncle lost a brutal campaign for re-election, Shaw castigated President-elect Thomas Jefferson as 'a man eternally wavering from one extreme to the other' who headed an 'unprincipled jacobinic faction.'

He was lonely and anxious in the raw, wet town of Washington. He wrote that he found friends in the society of books.

“[They] come at my call and return when I desire them--they are never out of humor and they answer all my questions with readiness."

Anthology Society

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The Boston Athenaeum today

William Smith Shaw moved to Boston and set up a law practice. He never married, despite his mother’s pleas, but formed intense friendships with several young gentlemen his age. They were all anglophiles, and they all yearned to be men of letters. They included Arthur Maynard Walter, Joseph Stevens Buckminster and Robert Hallowell Gardiner

In 1804, William Smith Shaw and his friends took over a floundering magazine and called it the Monthly Anthology and Boston Review. It was an excuse for a club they called the Anthology Society. They met to smoke cigars, drink and laugh, and meetings sometimes lasted into a ‘vulgar hour.’

The notes to one meeting read, "No other business was transacted, the members feeling rather wild in a strange room. The beef was good and the wine bad."

Soon the Anthology Society was getting too many books to review, too many periodicals in exchange for subscriptions. The young men needed a place to put it all, so they rented a room on Congress Street. Shaw, Walter and Gardiner brought their books to put on a shelf.

In 1806, Shaw was appointed clerk of the federal court, which freed him up to act as the reading room's librarian. A $10 membership fee allowed subscribers to visit the reading room from 9 am to 9 pm.

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The Boston Athenaeum in 1855

The next year the Boston Athenaeum was formally established, with trustees and subscribers. William Smith Shaw was made librarian. Sometimes he was the only trustee who came to the bimonthly meetings, and one year the trustees manage a quorum only once.

He was devastated when his two closest friends, Walter and Buckminster, died before they turned 30.

He became so obsessed with his collecting that he designed his clothing with large pockets in which to hold pamphlets and periodicals during the day. He was nicknamed Athenaeum Smith.

His letters reveal a growing desperation to acquire books: "I cannot urge upon you too strongly to spare no pains to send me the interesting books published in NYork as soon as possible," he wrote.

Perhaps he was beginning to invest in books and pamphlets what he could no longer invest in human relationships.

Judge William Tudor observed of him:

that dog Shaw goes everywhere. He knows everybody. Everybody knows him. If he sees a book, pamphlet, or manuscript –– Oh! Sir! the Athenæum must have this. Well, have it he will and have it he must, and have it he does, for he seldom goes out of a house without having something under his arm; and his large pockets, made on purpose, are crammed. Now, he never refuses anything whatever.

Eccentric and Gauche

William Smith Shaw’s unhealthy obsession with the Boston Athenaeum ultimately cost him his job.

He made a list of his responsibilities as librarian: "Every morning, Sweep News-rooms/dust the tables, chairs &c and the Library-room--After breakfast, clean the Lamps & Lamp-room, see that the books are in their places ad even with the shelves."

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1876 painting of the Athenaeum's picture gallery

He gloried in the institution. It was ‘one of the greatest strides toward intellectual advancement this country has ever witnessed,” wrote Smith.

The trustees grew frustrated by his possessiveness. Though they asked him to do it repeatedly, he refused to separate his own books and periodicals from the Athenaeum’s.

It didn’t help that he was eccentric and gauche. He was uncouth in mind and body, wrote his friend Robert Hallowell Gardiner. His 'unfortunate habit of intemperance' made him incapable of attending to the decencies of life.'

In 1823, William Smith Shaw was fired as Athenaeum librarian. He only lived a few more years, dying at 48 in 1826.

The Boston Athenaeum thrived. In 1847, the cornerstone was laid for the current Neoclassical building at 10-1/2 Beacon Street, next to the Old Granary Burying Ground.

Its illustrious members included Ralph Waldo Emerson, Louisa May Alcott, Nathaniel Hawthorne, both Oliver Wendell Holmeses, John Quincy Adams, Amy Lowell and John F. Kennedy. It held an art collection that became the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.

Today it is open all day Monday through Friday and part of the day over the weekend.

Images: Boston Athenaeum exterior by CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=722802

With thanks to Culture Club: The Curious History of the Boston Athenaeum By Katherine Wolff.

 

2 comments

  1. Arthur H Veasey III

    I daresay that you should not accept the characterization of one man, Robert Hallowell Gardiner to portray this impressive gentleman. There was a lot of jealousies among the small group of intellectual that were considered “men of letters.” To say Shaw was eccentric and gauche on the basis of one quote is defaming his legacy through shoddy research and inadequate historical follow up. You don’t get to be personal secretary to the president by being “uncouth in mind and body” even if he is your uncle. Outside of his usual responsibilities he once had the solemn but noteworthy duty of conveying the 23rd Congress’s condolences to Martha Washington at Mount Vernon upon the death of her husband George Washington and delivered their request that his remains be laid to rest in the city of Washington. He was privileged again to convey Mrs. Washington’s gracious response back to the legislators. Washington was buried at his beloved Mount Vernon. His deportment throughout his service to the President and to the Athenaeum seems quite the contrary to this admirer.

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