Business and Labor

Boston Housewife Susan Stavers Invents Minute Tapioca

Detail from General Foods ad for Minute Tapioca from 1944 Life Magazine.

Detail from General Foods ad for Minute Tapioca from 1944 Life Magazine.

In the late 19th century, a Boston landlady named Susan Stavers served a sailor some tapioca pudding. He complained about it — South Seas tapioca was much better than the coarse, lumpy stuff Stavers served, he said.

Her tapioca wasn’t worse than most American pudding at the time. But she took the sailor’s complaint to heart. (Or so the story goes.)

Tapioca results from processing a plant called manioc (also known as cassava), which is found in Brazil, Malaysia, and Indonesia

Susan Stavers decided to put cheap manioc roots through her coffee grinder. Her neighbors liked the pudding it made, and she started going door-to-door selling her tapioca in brown paper bags.


Minute Tapioca

In 1894, she sold the rights to a publisher and grocer, John Whitman, from Orange, Mass. He renamed the product Minute Tapioca and bought the J.B. Reynolds Shoe Factory along the Millers River factory to make it in.


Signs on the building boasted of Minute Tapioca’s virtues: Signs for “Minute Tapioca Company”, “Minute Gelatine Requires No Soaking” and Minute Tapioca Requires No Soaking.”

In 1904, Whitman was promoting pudding tapioca recipes in a 30-page paperback cookbook. The first 16 pages are the story of the Minute Man. The rest is recipes using Minute products and advertisements for his grocery and tapioca business.

Postum Cereal bought Minute Tapioca in 1926, the same year it bought Jell-O.  Its revenues jumped that year to $46.9 million from $27.4 million. After an acquisition spree, the company changed its name to General Foods three years later.

In 1949, General Foods appropriated the name ‘Minute’ for a new, quick-cooking rice: Minute Rice.

In 1967, the tapioca factory closed in Orange.

Susan Stavers belongs to the pantheon of New England women who started food businesses, including Paul Revere’s great-great-great-granddaughter, Emma Curtis, who invented the fluffernutter sandwich, or Margaret Rudkin, who started Pepperidge Farm.

Postcard courtesy Wheeler Memorial Library.


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  1. Pingback: The Woman Suffrage Cook Book Prints Recipes for Subversion - New England Historical Society

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